Psychology, Interamerican
Psychometric Properties of Social Connectedness Scale
Creative Commons
PDF (Português (Brasil))


conexão social
validade do teste
precisão do teste

How to Cite

Soares, A. K. S., Goedert , M. C. F. ., Campanhã, C. ., & Noriega, J. Ángel V. . (2023). Psychometric Properties of Social Connectedness Scale. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 57(2), e1646.


The perceived social connectedness (CS) is a one-dimensional construct conceptualized as the cognitive assessment that there is a close relationship with others, with whom contact can be made. This study aims to adapt the Social Connectedness Scale (SCS) to the Brazilian context, gathering evidence of psychometric adequacy. Two studies were conducted, the first (N = 285, mean age 24 years, SD = 4.92; 62% male) to obtain the exploratory factorial structure and the second (N = 300; mean age 23 years; SD = 5.43; 51% male) directed to confirmatory analysis of the unidimensionality and parameters of the item response theory. Internal consistency was satisfactory, as well as the evidence of convergent validity obtained from the negative correlations with the scale of depression, anxiety and stress. The results showed that the Portuguese version of the SCS gathered adequate psychometric evidence supporting its use in the measurement of SC.
PDF (Português (Brasil))


Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2010). Weighted least squares estimation with missing data. Mplus Technical Appendix, 2010, 1-10.

Baker, F. B. (2001). The basics of item response theory (Second edition). ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, College Park, MD.

Bower, J. M., & Carroll, A. (2015). Benefits of getting hooked on sports or the arts: Examining the connectedness of youth who participate in sport and creative arts activities. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 8(2), 169-178.

Chalmers, R. P. (2012). MIRT: A multidimensional item response theory package for the R environment. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(6), 1-29

Cockshaw, W. D., & Shochet, I. M. (2010). The link between belongingness and depressive symptoms: An exploration in the workplace interpersonal context. Australian Psychologist, 45(4), 283–289.

Cruwys, T., Dingle, G.A., Haslam C, et al. (2013) Social group memberships protect against future depression, alleviate depression symptoms and prevent depression relapse. Social Science & Medicine 98, 179-186.

Duru, E. (2007). An adaptation study of social connectedness scale in Turkish culture. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 26, 85-94.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados. Bookman editora.

Haslam, S.A., Haslam, C., Cruwys, T., Jetten, J., Bentley, S.V., Fong, P., & Steffens, N.K. (2021). Social identity makes group-based social connection possible: Implications for loneliness and mental health. Current opinion in psychology, 43, 161-165.

Holt-Lunstad, J., Robles, T. F., & Sbarra, D. A. (2017). Advancing social connection as a public health priority in the United States. The American psychologist, 72(6), 517–530.

Hunsaker, A., Hargittai, E., & Piper, A. M. (2020). Online social connectedness and anxiety among older adults. International Journal of Communication, 14(29), 697-725.

Ko, S. Y., Wei, M., Rivas, J., & Tucker, J. R. (2022). Reliability and Validity of Scores on a Measure of Stigma of Loneliness. The Counseling Psychologist, 50(1), 96-122.

Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and social assurance scales. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 42, 232–241.

Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1998). The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 338–345.

Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(3), 310–318.

Liu, J., Li, S., Yan, X., Li, J., Sun, Q., Mei, H., & Rao, H. (2023). Social Connection and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Happiness in Urban Older Adults in China: A Cross-Sectional Study With a Community Sample. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 1-14.

Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Ferrando, P. J. (2019). A general approach for fitting pure exploratory bifactor models. Multivariate behavioral research, 54(1), 15-30.

Marotta, L., Pesce, A., & Guazzini, A. (2020). Before and after the Quarantine: An Approximate Study on the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on the Italian Population during the Lockdown Period. Future Internet, 12(12), 229.

Morina, N., Kip, A., Hoppen, T. H., Priebe, S., & Meyer, T. (2021). Potential impact of physical distancing on physical and mental health: a rapid narrative umbrella review of meta-analyses on the link between social connection and health. BMJ open, 11(3), e042335.

Muthén, L. K. & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied research (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén&Muthén.

Nguyen, M. H., Le, T. T., & Meirmanov, S. (2019). Depression, acculturative stress, and social connectedness among international university students in Japan: a statistical investigation. Sustainability, 11(3), 878.

Patias, N. D., Machado, W. L., Bandeira, D. R., & Dell’Aglio, D. D. (2016). Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) – Short Form: Adaptação e Validação para Adolescentes Brasileiros. Psico-USF, 21(3), 459-469

Rauthmann, J. F. (2013). Investigating the MACH–IV with item response theory and proposing the trimmed MACH. Journal of personality assessment, 95(4), 388-397.

Samejima, F. (1968). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores 1. ETS Research Bulletin Series, 1968(1), 1-172.

Stanley, I. H., Hom, M. A., Chu, C., Dougherty, S. P., Gallyer, A. J., Spencer-Thomas, S., Shelef, L., Fruchter, E., Comtois, K. A., Gutierrez, P. M., Sachs-Ericsson, N. J., & Joiner, T. E. (2019). Perceptions of belongingness and social support attenuate PTSD symptom severity among firefighters: A multistudy investigation. Psychological Services, 16(4), 543-555.

Wu, Y. J., Wu, Y. J., Chen, C. W., & Sun, R. (2021). The Relations of Social Support and Social Connectedness to Well-being during the COVID-19 Pandemic across 49 countries. Manuscript. Disponível em:

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Karla Silva Soares, Maria Celina Ferreira Goedert , Camila Campanhã, José Ángel Vera Noriega