Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology <p>The Interamerican Journal of Psychology (IJP) is published since 1967 by the Interamerican Society of Psychology. It is the policy of the journal to publish the current developments of Interamerican Psychology under both the theoretical and the applied and professional perspective; doing this, the journal aims to promote communication and cooperation among psychologists from the different Interamerican Countries<strong><em>.</em></strong></p> Sociedad Interamericana de Psicología en-US Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology 0034-9690 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Influence of measurement type and the moment of occurrence of low performance behaviour's on task and citizenship performance appraisal <p>This research studies whether the moment of occurrence of a task or contextual behaviour with a low performance produces a primacy or recency effect and whether it causes changes in performance appraisal. We also analyzed whether the nature of assessment questionnaire items affects raters’ assessments and how the sequence of questionnaire presentation and completion may do so. Participants were 146 undergraduate students. We used a design with two inter-subject variables (questionnaire presentation and performance sequence) and one within-subject variable (global versus specific questionnaires). Findings show that if a low performance is presented at the beginning of the assessment period, the performance assessment will be more negative. Also, results indicate that task performance appraisals and contextual behaviour assessments are higher and less accurate when performed with a questionnaire that includes global items.</p> Christian Rosales María Dolores Díaz-Cabrera Estefenía Hernández-Fernaud Copyright (c) 2021 Christian Rosales , María Dolores Díaz-Cabrera, Estefenía Hernández-Fernaud 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e1229 e1229 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1229 Regulation of the stress response by social buffering: A review across species <p>This review presents a critical reading of the literature on <em>social buffering </em>in human and non-human animals. The term <em>social buffering </em>has been coined to refer to an attenuation of stress responses by the presence of conspecifics. Evidence shows that the buffer seems to be specific for each stage of development, being the mother the factor that attenuates the stress responses during early development and conspecifics of the same age, later in life. An animal model of scarcity of resources revealed that when being reared by a stressed mother, the social buffering effect does not occur. The literature reviewed allows us to approach a key factor related to stress and its effects in the different stages of ontogeny.</p> Matias Alejandro Avellaneda Giselle Kamenetzky Copyright (c) 2021 Matias Alejandro Avellaneda, Giselle Kamenetzky 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e1439 e1439 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1439 Like a Chameleon: Resilience among Self-Identified Latinx Mixed Adults <p>The experiences of coping with adversities among nine Latinx adult participants (six females, three males) who self-identified as ethnically mixed were explored through semi-structured, individual interviews. Participants identified a range of challenges related to their mixed identity status, including experiences of discrimination and instances of identity conflict. Participants specified methods of overcoming challenges they faced as mixed individuals including seeking cultural commonalities, finding strength and pride within their cultures, exercising acceptance, and emphasizing aspects of oneself depending on contexts and circumstances. Finally, participants discussed resilience related growth experiences related to their mixed identity characterized by improved relationships and self-esteem. The findings provide detailed information about resilience for these mixed Latinx individuals that may be helpful in better understanding and serving others who identify similarly.</p> Melissa Morgan Erika Noriega Pigg Andrés Consoli Daniella Pavone Daniel Meza Copyright (c) 2021 Melissa L. Morgan Consoli 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e988 e988 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.988 Psychology and professional gamers in esports: thematic analysis and research agenda <p>The goals of this study are to do a bibliographic review and establish study topics on Psychology and professional gamers in esports, as well as finding out possible researching ways about it. The search was done in Science Direct databases, PubMed and PsycINFO. The total amount was 101 documents published between 2012 and the 13 of June of 2020. From these documents 24 were selected as representatives. The analyzed studies were mainly based on 8 different subjects: psychological training, personality characteristics, team processes, negative consequences of esports, professional career, benefits of esports, psychological skills and processes and invisible training. The Journal Psychology Applied to Sport and Physical Exercise is one of the main contributors to this subject. In conclusion, an exhaustive review shows a growing interest in the subject of esports and its relationship with the field of Psychology, as well as the future lines of research that have been opened.</p> Alejo García Naveira Eva León Zarceño Carlos González García Copyright (c) 2021 Alejo García Naveira, Eva León Zarceño, Carlos González García 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e1342 e1342 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1342 Perceptions of the Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Bullying from the Experiences of Adolescents <p>This research aimed to understand the relationship between the effects of two types of violence, sexual abuse and bullying, in the life of school adolescents. This is a case study developed in a public school in southern Brazil. Four female adolescents participated. The instruments of data collection were: Reflexive Interviews and school document records. Grounded-theory was used to analyse the data. The results showed that the participants adopted coping strategies such as denying the role of victims of family violence, with low success in the educational environment. The suffering of sexual abuse showed that being emotionally debilitated made them to be targets of bullying. Nevertheless, they showed an ecological-systemic perception of the interactions of the negative effects of the two types of violence in their lives.</p> Grazielli Fernandes Maria Angela Mattar Yunes Copyright (c) 2021 Grazielli Fernandes, Maria Angela Mattar Yunes 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e882 e882 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.882 Understanding Intimate Relationships with Abusive Behavior Through Attachment Theory <p>This work aims to understand abusive relationships through the Attachment Theory, addressing the concept of violence, which types of violence within intimate relationships (Physical, Sexual, Verbal and Psychological), statistical explanations and correlations between the causes of violence abusive behaviors and the effects on the lives of those who suffer them. Participating in this study were 464 women and 85 men, responding to the Experiencie in Close Relationships (ECR), Intimate Relationship Abuse Scale (ARI) and Intimate Relationship Abuse based on respondent behavior in relation to the other (ARI-E) and a demographic questionnaire by electronic means. The results indicated that the ARI and ECR scales present good psychometric properties. With regard to violence suffered, women reported experiencing significantly greater physical violence than men, while men reported experiencing psychological violence and controlling attitudes significantly higher than women. This study suggests that the ARI scale has good indicators of validity and reliability in assessing intimate relationship violence.</p> <p> </p> Amanda de Souza Tosta Vicent Cassepp-Borges Copyright (c) 2021 Amanda de Souza Tosta, Vicent Cassepp-Borges 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 55 1 e1276 e1276 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1276 Before and After the Pandemic: Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems in Argentina <p>The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and isolation measures on alcohol consumption remains unknown among Latin-American countries. This paper characterizes differences in alcohol consumption and related problems before and after the pandemic among Argentinians from different genders, age groups, income levels, and behaviors regarding the acquisition of alcoholic beverages. Through an online survey 1446 participants were assessed regarding four alcohol consumption dimensions (frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking -HED- and alcohol-related problems) three months prior and after the first cases in the country and subsequent lockdown measures. Overall, participants reported small reductions for usual consumption and moderate ones for HED and related problems. As expected, very high reductions were found for those underage (14 to 18 years), and young adults (19 to 24 years). Those who had an increase in income after the pandemic did not report changes in consumption, while those whose income remained equal or lowered reported reductions. Those who did not report special behaviors to acquire alcohol (e.g. pre-stocking) informed decreases in consumption compared to those who did. This study provides new evidence on the impact of environmental factors in public health, suggesting restricted access to alcohol generates a significant decrease in alcohol consumption and related problems.</p> Karina Conde Paula Victoria Gimenez Tomás Salomón Raquel Inés Peltzer Sebastián Laspiur Mariana Cremonte Copyright (c) 2021 Karina Conde, Paula Victoria Gimenez, Tomás Salomón, Raquel Inés Peltzer, Sebastián Laspiur, Mariana Cremonte 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 55 1 e1444 e1444 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1444 Risks and occupational health in state employment: Analysis of coexisting psychosocial profiles <p>The objective of this study is to identify the psychosocial profiles of state employees based on the burnout-engagement model and other associated factors. 147 administrative staff of a Government Offices in Mendoza, Argentina participated. Different psychometric tests were applied to measure burnout, engagement, characteristics of the job, psychosocial climate and perception of mobbing. The methodological design is quantitative, descriptive-explanatory. The results obtained allow us to identify the coexistence of different psychosocial profiles in the same labor context, an important input for management decision making with a view to generating preventive and corrective strategies in relation to psychosocial risks at work or motivating occupational health. On the theoretical level, it contributes to the dialectical perspective of integrating positive and negative experiences in one same job dynamic.</p> Roxana Graciela Marsollier Expósito Expósito Copyright (c) 2021 Roxana Graciela Marsollier, Cristián David Expósito 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 55 1 e1206 e1206 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1206 Gender and Sexualities in the Interamerican Journal of Psychology: a systematic review <p>This systematic review on sexualities and gender covers 80 articles, published by the <em>Interamerican Journal of Psychology</em> until the year 2019. The sample, selected and classified into three themes by the thematic analysis method, shows a productivity raise in this regard upon the 1990s. Ever since, debates on sexual <em>differences</em> and <em>roles</em> amidst the sample have declined while productions on <em>gender</em> have grown, according to the first theme. On the second, it was possible to infer that such an increase had significant collaboration from the health areas, highlighting yet the importance of some health, sexual and (non-)reproductive health intervention strategies. The contribution of family arrangements and motherhood was pointed out in the third theme along with the lack of studies that are not only centered in cis-heteronormativity. Therefore, we outline our snippet from a genealogical perspective in Latin American Psychology, highlighting the importance to think of and to implement strategies that are closer to the psychosocial, ethical and cultural realities of the region.</p> Beatriz Souza Eliana Tiago Jocilene Mongim Luciana Lindinger Antonella Barone Copyright (c) 2021 Beatriz de Barros Souza, Eliana Rodrigues Tiago, Jocilene Marquesini Mongim, Luciana Lindinger, María Antonella Barone 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 55 1 e1395 e1395 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1395 International Status of Test Development and Use: Possible Implications for Peru <p>Test development and use have been described as the flagship of applied psychology. This article discusses the status of test development and use internationally. Country and regional differences in test development and use exist and are explained considering the qualities needed to support test development and use. The relevance of tests, like other technologies, should change in light of changing needs of those who rely on test data. Some prominent changes to which tests should respond are reviewed. Several conditions that are external to and internal within psychology that impact test development and use are reviewed. These and other issues impact test development and use in Peru.</p> Cesar Merino-Soto Thomas Oakland Sergio Dominguez-Lara Anthony Copez-Lonzoy Copyright (c) 2021 Cesar Merino-Soto, Sergio Dominguez-Lara, Anthony Copez-Lonzoy 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 55 1 e964 e964 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.964 A Short Version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-20): Evidence on Construct Validity <p>Several measures were developed in the past decades to measure personality, focusing on the Big Five Factor Model (BFFM; <em>Openness</em>, <em>Conscientiousness</em>, <em>Extraversion</em>, <em>Agreeableness</em>, and <em>Neuroticism</em>). Despite the relevance of their findings in different countries, a shared limitation of such measures is their length, demanding time from researchers and participants, which might cause boredom or fatigue, biasing the final results. This research aimed to provide a shorter version for the 44-Item <em>Big Five Inventory (BFI)</em>, through two studies (N<sub>Total</sub> = 8,119). The structure was assessed using a range of techniques (e.g., PAF analysis, Procrustes rotation). The best 20 items (4 per factor) were chosen to compose the final version of the BFI-20, which presented suitable psychometric evidences across the samples. Thus, due the growing need for shorter measures without losing their psychometric quality, our findings indicate the adequacy of the 20-item <em>BFI</em> and its potential applicability in research context.</p> Valdiney Veloso Gouveia Rafaella de Carvalho Rodrigues Araújo Isabel Cristina Vasconcelos de Oliveira Marina Pereira Gonçalves Taciano Milfont Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho Walberto Santos Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros Ana Karla Silva Soares Renan Pereira Monteiro Josemberg Moura de Andrade Thiago Medeiros Cavalcanti Bruna da Silva Nascimento Rildésia Gouveia Copyright (c) 2021 Valdiney Veloso Gouveia, Rafaella de Carvalho Rodrigues Araújo, Isabel Cristina Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Marina Pereira Gonçalves, Taciano Milfont, Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho, Walberto Santos, Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros, Ana Karla Silva Soares, Renan Pereira Monteiro, Josemberg Moura de Andrade, Thiago Medeiros Cavalcanti, Bruna da Silva Nascimento, Rildésia Gouveia 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e1312 e1312 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1312 Experiences of psychological and psychotherapeutic support for LGBT youth who have survived a suicide process <p class="Resumen"><span lang="EN-US">The high prevalence of mental health problems in LGBT people has been explained from the minority stress model. Homolesbobitransphobia and the internalization of stigma are stress processes that impact mental health. The internalization and hypervigilance of the stigma and the concealment of sexual diverse identity can be barriers to the provision of appropriated mental health care. In order to identify aspects that constitute barriers and facilitators for mental health care, 30 interviews from a previous study with LGBT adolescents and youth who had survived suicide were re-analyzed. Focused coding of the Grounded Theory was used, developing three core categories: Hypervigilance in psychological help, The need for help for internalized stigma, and The place of sexual orientation and gender identity in psychological help. From the analysis emerged global concept called "So Close yet So Far", synthesizing the barriers to provide psychological and psychotherapeutic help that is sensitive to the needs of LGBT adolescents and youth.</span></p> Alemka Tomicic Claudio Martínez Nina Immel Copyright (c) 2021 Alemka Tomicic, Claudio Martínez, Nina Immel 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 55 1 e1453 e1453 10.30849/ripijp.v55i1.1453