AbstractImplicit memory tasks involve an increase in performance for previously seen items when compared to new items, independent of whether or not participants correctly classify the item as old. In this study we evaluated the effect of sex differences on word fragment (WFC) word stem completion (WSC) tasks, under the hypothesis that they would show no differences between tasks, and that women would overall perform better than men. 24 undergraduate students participated in this study, which consisted of a shallow encoding task, followed by a fragmented word completion task. Results did not reveal differences in performance between men and women on overall word completion rates. However, we found differences between WSC and WFC in men and women. Contrary to our hypothesis, women did not perform better than men.
Badgaiyan, R. D., & Posner, M. I. (1997). Time course of cortical activations in implicit and explicit recall. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17(12), 4904-4913.
Burton, L. A., Rabin, L., Vardy, S. B., Frohlich, J., Wyatt, G., Dimitri, D., & Guterman, E. (2004). Gender differences in implicit and explicit memory for affective passages. Brain and Cognition, 54(3), 218-224.
Fay, S., Isingrini, M., & Clarys, D. (2005). Effects of depth-of-processing and ageing on word-stem and word-fragment implicit memory tasks: Test of the lexical-processing hypothesis. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 17(6), 785-802
Goldstein, E. B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. Supplement. Cengage Learning.
Hampson, E., Finestone, J. M., & Levy, N. A. (2005). Menstrual cycle effects on perceptual closure mediate changes in performance on a fragmented objects test of implicit memory. Brain and cognition, 57(2), 107-110.
Herlitz, A., Nilsson, L. G., & Bäckman, L. (1997). Gender differences in episodic memory. Memory & cognition, 25(6), 801-811.
Lorenzi, I., Giunta, F., & Di Stefano, M. (2006). Implicit and explicit memory formation: influence of gender and cultural habits. Archives italiennes de biologie, 144(1), 25-31.
Maki, P. M., Rich, J. B., & Rosenbaum, R. S. (2002). Implicit memory varies across the menstrual cycle: estrogen effects in young women. Neuropsychologia, 40(5), 518-529.
Meng, Y., & Guo, C. (2007). ERP dissociation and connection between implicit and explicit memory. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2945-2953.
Mitchell, D. B. (2006). Nonconscious Priming After 17 Years Invulnerable Implicit Memory?. Psychological Science, 17(11), 925-929.
Paller, K. A. (1990). Recall and stem-completion priming have different electrophysiological correlates and are modified differentially by directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16(6), 1021.
Poromaa, I. S., & Gingnell, M. (2014). Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective. Frontiers in neuroscience, 8.
Rajaram, S., & Roediger, H. L. (1993). Direct comparison of four implicit memory tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(4), 765.
Razumiejczyk, E., Macbeth, G., & López Alonso, A. O. (2008). Evidencia de priming gustativo y su disociación con la memoria explícita. Revista Universitas Psychologica, 7(2), 549-556.
Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Gardiner, J. M. (1995). Retrieval volition and memorial awareness in stem completion: An empirical analysis. Psychological research, 57(3), 166-178.
Roediger, H. L., Weldon, M. S., Stadler, M. L., & Riegler, G. L. (1992). Direct comparison of two implicit memory tests: Word fragment and word stem completion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(6), 1251
Rugg, M. D., Mark, R. E., Walla, P., Schloerscheidt, A. M., Birch, C. S., & Allan, K. (1998). Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature, 392(6676), 595-598.
Sherwin, B. B. (2012). Estrogen and cognitive functioning in women: Lessons we have learned. Behavioral neuroscience, 126(1), 123.
Soler, M. J., Ruiz, J. C., Vargas, M., Dasí, C., & Fuentes, I. (2011). Perceptual priming in schizophrenia evaluated by word fragment and word stem completion. Psychiatry research, 190(2), 167-171.
Sweatt, J. D. (2009). Mechanisms of memory. Academic Press.
Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory 1. Organization of Memory. London: Academic, 381, 402.
Tulving, E., & Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems. Science, 247(4940), 301-306.
Voss, J. L., & Paller, K. A. (2008). Brain substrates of implicit and explicit memory: The importance of concurrently acquired neural signals of both memory types. Neuropsychologia, 46(13), 3021-3029.
Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. (1968). A study of learning and retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 6(3), 283-291.
Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. (1974). The effect of prior learning on subsequent retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 12(4), 419-428.
Weiss, E., Ragland, D., Brensinger, C., Bilker, W., Deisenhammer, E., M., Delazer. (2006) Sex differences in clustering and switching in verbal fluency tasks. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 12, 502–509.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).