To understand ethnic differences and the role of acculturation, this study compared a model of fathers’ care-giving across European American and Hispanic fathers. The model included Care-giving, Nurturing, Play, and Cognitive Stimulation and used Structural Equation Modelling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analyses included: a) model comparison (i.e. four factors against single factor); b) measurement invariance; and c) latent mean differences. Four variable model reached best fit; low acculturated fathers were less engaged in cognitive stimulation compared with European American and high acculturated Hispanics; European American were found to be less engaged in nurturing than both Hispanic groups with no moderation effect by acculturation. It seems inaccurate to assume that engaged fathers are equally engaged; fathers vary depending on ethnicity and acculturation.
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