Psychology, Interamerican
Self-regulated learning, academic achievement and socioeconomic context at the end of primary school
PDF (Español (España))


autorregulación del aprendizaje
rendimiento académico
regulación emocional

How to Cite

Trias, D., Huertas, J. A. ., Mels, C. ., Castillejo, I., & Ronqui, V. (2021). Self-regulated learning, academic achievement and socioeconomic context at the end of primary school. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 55(2), e1509.


The increase of inequalities and the learning crisis due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced to review the role of education in the attainment of skills to learn throughout life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of the academic achievement on selfregulation strategies (forethought, inhibition and volitional inhibition), considering the socioeconomical context at the end of elementary school. The SRL strategies are assessed, from the perspective of students and teachers, triangulating measurement in different tasks. 67 students in their last year of primary education participated. The SRL measures were compared using robust tests considering high and low academic achievement and low and medium socioeconomic context (robust version of Welch’s test for two groups, Yuen’s test, and two-way ANOVA based on trimmed means and Winsorized variances). The academic achievement affects and significantly predicts the forethought strategy. In the low socioeconomical context, the students with a high academic achievement maximize their SRL. The modulating role of the school experience in self-regulation is discussed.
PDF (Español (España))


Abad, J.F., Olea, J., Ponsoda, V., & García, C. (2012). Mediciones en Ciencias Sociales y de la Salud. Madrid: Síntesis.

Báez, M., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2017). Entrenamiento en estrategias de autorregulación de la motivación y la volición: efecto en el aprendizaje. Anales de Psicología, 33(2), 292–300.

Barg, G., Daleiro, M., Queirolo, E. I., Ravenscroft, J., Mañay, N., Peregalli, F., & Kordas, K. (2018). Association of low lead levels with behavioral problems and executive function deficits in schoolers from Montevideo, Uruguay. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(2735).

Ben-Eliyahu, A. (2019). Academic Emotional Learning: A Critical Component of Self-Regulated Learning in the Emotional Learning Cycle. Educational Psychologist, 0(0), 1–22.

Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-Regulation in the Classroom: A Perspective on Assessment and Intervention. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 199–231.

Callan, G. L., & Cleary, T. J. (2018). Multidimensional Assessment of Self-Regulated Learning With Middle School Math Students. School Psychology Quarterly, 33(1), 103–111.

Calvo, J. J. (Ed.). (2013). Atlas sociodemográfico y de desigualdad del Uruguay. Fascículo 1. Las necesidades básicas insatisfechas a partir de los Censos 2011. Montevideo: Ediciones Trilce.

Chen, P. P., & Bonner, S. M. (2017). Teachers’ Beliefs About Grading Practices and a Constructivist Approach to Teaching. Educational Assessment, 22(1), 18–34.

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). (2019). Panorama social de América Latina, 2018. Panorama social de América Latina, 2018. Santiago de Chile.

Corno, L. (2001). Volitional aspects of self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Daily, S. M., Mann, M. J., Kristjansson, A. L., Smith, M. L., & Zullig, K. J. (2019). School Climate and Academic Achievement in Middle and High School Students. Journal of School Health, 89(3), 173–180.

Dent, A. L., & Hoyle, R. H. (2015). A framework for evaluating and enhancing alignment in self-regulated learning research. Metacognition and Learning, 10(1), 165–179.

Dent, A. L., & Koenka, A. C. (2016). The Relation Between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement Across Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(3), 425–474.

Dietrichson, J., Bøg, M., Filges, T., & Klint Jørgensen, A.-M. (2017). Academic Interventions for Elementary and Middle School Students With Low Socioeconomic Status. Review of Educational Research, 87(2), 243–282.

DiFrancesca, D., Nietfeld, J. L., & Cao, L. (2015). A comparison of high and low achieving students on self-regulated learning variables. Learning and Individual Differences, (January 2016).

Dörrenbächer, L., & Perels, F. (2015). Volition completes the puzzle: Development and evaluation of an integrative trait model of self-regulated learning. Frontline Learning Research, 3(4), 14–36.

Engle, P., & Black, M. (2008). The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243–256.

Epskamp, S. (2019). semPlot: Path Diagrams and Visual Analysis of Various SEM Packages' Output. R package version 1.1.2.

Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & Mirosevich, V. M. (2008). Modern robust statistical methods: an easy way to maximize the accuracy and power of your research. American Psychologist, 63(7), 591.

Evans, D., Borriello, G. A., & Field, A. P. (2018). A review of the academic and psychological impact of the transition to secondary education. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(AUG), 1–18.

Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2013). Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, Self-Regulation, and Coping. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1), 43–48.

Evans, G. W., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(4), 504–514.

Field, A. P., & Wilcox, R. R. (2017). Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and experimental psychopathology researchers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 98, 19–38.

Gaeta, M. L., Teruel, M. P., & Orejudo, S. (2012). Aspectos motivacionales, volitivos y metacognitivos del aprendizaje autorregulado. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(26), 73–94.

García Fernández, T., González-Pienda, J. A., Rodríguez Pérez, C., Álvarez García, D., & Álvarez Pérez, L. (2014). Psychometric characteristics of the BRIEF scale for the assessment of executive functions in Spanish clinical population. Psicothema, 26(1), 47–52.

Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Child Neuropsychology, 6(3), 235–238.

Greene, J. A. (2018). Self-regulation in education. New York: Routledge.

Greene, J. A., Bolick, C. M., Jackson, W. P., Caprino, A. M., Oswald, C., & McVea, M. (2015). Domain-specificity of self-regulated learning processing in science and history. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 111–128.

Gross, J. & Ligges, U. (2015). nortest: Tests for Normality. R package version 1.0-4.

Hackman, D. A., Gallop, R., Evans, G. W., & Farah, M. J. (2015). Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation. Developmental Sciencia, 1–17.

Hair, N. L., Hanson, J. L., Wolfe, B. L., & Pollak, S. D. (2015). Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement. JAMA Pediatrics, 53706, 1–8.

Harding, S.-M., English, N., Nibali, N., Griffin, P., Graham, L., Alom, B., & Zhang, Z. (2019). Self-regulated learning as a predictor of mathematics and reading performance: A picture of students in grades 5 to 8. Australian Journal of Education, 000494411983015.

Heirweg, S., De Smul, M., Merchie, E., Devos, G., & Van Keer, H. (2020). Mine the process: Investigating the cyclical nature of upper primary school students’ self-regulated learning. Instructional Science.

Heirweg, S., De Smul, M., Devos, G., & Van Keer, H. (2019). Profiling upper primary school students’ self-regulated learning through self-report questionnaires and think-aloud protocol analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 70, 155–168.

INEEd. (2019). Informe sobre el estado de la educación en Uruguay. Montevideo: INEEd.

Karlen, Y. (2016). Differences in students’ metacognitive strategy knowledge, motivation, and strategy use: A typology of self-regulated learners. Journal of Educational Research, 109(3), 253–265.

Kazen, M., Kaschel, R., & Kuhl, J. (2008). Individual differences in intention initiation under demanding conditions: Interactive effects of state vs. action orientation and enactment difficulty. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(3), 693–715.

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33.

Koole, S. L., & Aldao, A. (2015). The Self-Regulation of Emotion: Theoretical and Empirical Advances. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (3rd ed., pp. 1–36). New York: Guildford Press.

Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2009). How Do I Do? Investigating Effects of Expertise and Performance-Process Records on Self-Assessment. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(December 2008), 1256–1265.

Kuhl, J., Baumann, N., & Kazén, M. (2007). What goals make a good grades- and why? Academic Exchange Quarterly: Self-Regulation of Learning, 11(4), 192–196.

Kuhl, J., Kazén, M., & Quirin, M. (2014). La Teoría de la Interacción de Sistemas de la Personalidad (PSI). Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 31(2), 90–99.

LLECE-UNESCO. (2015). Informe de resultados TERCE. Factores asociados. Santiago de Chile: UNESCO.

Maechler M, Rousseeuw P, Croux C, Todorov V, Ruckstuhl A, Salibian-Barrera M, Verbeke T, Koller M, Conceicao EL, Anna di Palma M (2020). robustbase: Basic Robust Statistics. R package version 0.93-6,

Mair, P., & Wilcox, R. (2020). Robust statistical methods in R using the WRS2 package. Behavior research methods, 52, 464-488.

Marks, G. N. (2016). The relative effects of socio-economic, demographic, non-cognitive and cognitive influences on student achievement in Australia. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 1–10.

ONU. (2020). Geopolítica de la pandemia de COVID-19. Geopolítica(S), 11, pp. 11–13.

Panadero, E. (2017). A Review of Self-regulated Learning: Six Models and Four Directions for Research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(April), 1–28.

Pearce, A., Sawyer, A. C. P., Chittleborough, C. R., Mittinity, M. N., Law, C., & Lynch, J. (2016). Do early life cognitive ability and self-regulation skills explain socio-economic inequalities in academic achievement? An effect decomposition analysis in UK and Australian cohorts. Social Science & Medicine, 165, 108–118.

Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315–341.

Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2007). Student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence-based practice (pp. 731–810). Springer US.

R Core Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Revelle W (2020). psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research. Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. R package version 2.0.9,

Richardson, J. T. E. (2011). Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 135–147.

Rodríguez-Pereiro, S., Regueiro, B., Rodríguez, S., Piñeiro, I., Estévez, I., & Valle, A. (2019). Rendimiento previo e implicación en los deberes escolares de los estudiantes de los últimos cursos de educación primaria. Psicología Educativa, 25(2), 109–116.

Rovers, S. F. E., Clarebout, G., Savelberg, H. H. C. M., de Bruin, A. B. H., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2019). Granularity matters: comparing different ways of measuring self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, (February).

Segretin, M. S., Hermida, M. J., Prats, L., Fracchia, C., Ruetti, E., & Lipina, S. J. (2016). Childhood poverty and congnitive development in Latin America in the 21st century. In D. D. Preiss (Ed.), Child and adolescent development in Latin America. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (pp. 9–29).

Smith, J. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: a review of the definition, assessment and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 116–128.

Spencer, M. B., & Swanson, D. P. (2013). Opportunities and challenges to the development of healthy children and youth living in diverse communities. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1551–1566.

Torrano, F., & Soria, M. (2017). Diferencias de género y aprendizaje autorregulado: el efecto del rendimiento académico previo. Revista Complutense de Educación, 28(4), 1027–1042.

Vandevelde, S., Keer, H. Van, Schellings, G., & Hout-Wolters, B. Van. (2015). Using think-aloud protocol analysis to gain in-depth insights into upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 43, 11–30.

Vandevelde, S., Van Keer, H., & Merchie, E. (2016). The challenge of promoting self-regulated learning among primary school children with a low socioeconomic and immigrant background. Journal of Educational Research, 110(2), 113–139.

Wang, Z., Soden, B., Deater-deckard, K., Lukowski, S. L., Schenker, V. J., Willcutt, E. G., … Petrill, S. A. (2017). Development in reading and math in children from different SES backgrounds: the moderating role of child temperament. Developmental Science, 20(0555).

Weidman, A. C., Augustine, A. A., Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2015). Internalizing Symptomatology and Academic Achievement: Bi-Directional Prospective Relations in Adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 58, 106–114.

Wilcox, R. R., & Tian, T. S. (2011). Measuring effect size: a robust heteroscedastic approach for two or more groups. Journal of Applied Statistics, 38(7), 1359-1368.

Zeidner, M., & Stoeger, H. (2019). Self-Regulated Learning (SRL): A guide for the perplexed. High Ability Studies, 00(00), 1–43.

Zhu, J., & Mok, M. M. C. (2018). Predicting primary students’ self-regulated learning by their prior achievement, interest, personal best goal orientation and teacher feedback. Educational Psychology, 38(9), 1106–1128.

Ziegler, A., Stoeger, H., & Grassinger, R. (2011). Actiotope model and self-regulated learning. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 53(1), 161–179.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Trias, Juan Antonio Huertas, Cindy Mels, Ignacio Castillejo, Valentina Ronqui