Psychology, Interamerican
Effects of differential training in rule-governed behavior on compliance with traffic rules by pedestrians


rule-governed behavior
traffic rules
road prevention
legal psychology.

How to Cite

Ruiz-Martínez, Y., Hernández-Buitrago, P., & Quiroga Baquero, L. A. (2020). Effects of differential training in rule-governed behavior on compliance with traffic rules by pedestrians. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 53(3), 399–416.


The aim of this translational research was to investigate the effect of differential training in three types of rule-governed behavior (RGB) on compliance and transgression with pedestrian traffic rules. Participated 231 university students divided in three groups defined by the type of training (pliance, tracking and augmenting). The design consisted of pre-tests and post-tests, in addition of a training phase with direct reinforcement according to the experimental group. The results showed a general trend by compliance the rule in all phases, particularly with tracking-consequences in pre and post-training. In all experimental groups, training in RGB increase election in compliance of traffic rules. These findings allow the formulation of evidence-based guidelines for the design, implementation and evaluation of prevention road programs.


American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association. (2018). Rules and Procedures - Ethics Committee of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Assaily, J. (2017). Road safety education: What works? Patient Education and Counseling, 100(1), S24-S29. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2015.10.017

Backen, L., Whittingham, K., Coyne, L., & Lightcap, A. (2016). A contextual behavioral science approach to parenting intervention and research. In R. Zettle, S. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Contextual Behavioral Science (pp. 398-422). Oxford, UK: Wiley.

Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2017). Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis. New York: Routledge.

Barnes-Holmes, D., Finn, M., McEnteggart, C., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2017). Derived stimulus relations and their role in a behavior-analytic account of human language and cognition. Behavior Analyst, 41, 155-173. doi: 10.1007/s40614-017-0124-7

Barnes-Holmes, D., O'Hora, D., Roche, B., Hayes, S., Bissett, R., & Lyddy, F. (2001). Understanding and verbal regulation. In S. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & B. Roche (Eds.), Relational Frame Theory: A post-skinnerian account of human language and cognition (pp. 103-117). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Biglan, A. (2016). The need for a more effective science of cultural practices. The Behavior Analyst, 39, 97-107. doi: 10.1007/s40614-016-0051-z

Biglan, A., Zettle, R., Hayes, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2016). The future of the human sciences and society. In R.

Zettle, S. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Contextual Behavioral Science (pp. 531-541). Oxford, UK: Wiley.

Buskist, W., Bennett, R., & Miller, H. (1981). Effects of instructional constraints on human fixed-interval performance. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 35, 217-225. doi: 10.1901/jeab.1981.35-217

Buskist, W., & Miller, H. (1986). Interaction between rules and contingencies in the control of human fixed-interval performance. The Psychological Record, 36, 109-116.

Catania, A.C. (2012). Learning (5th Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Cerutti, D. (1994). Compliance with instructions: Effects of randomness in scheduling and monitoring. The Psychological Record, 44, 259-269. doi: 10.1007/BF03395133

Clavijo, A. (2004). La definición de los problemas psicológicos y conducta gobernada por reglas [The definition of psychological problems and rule-governed benavior]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 36, 305-316.

Clemente, M. (2012). Papel de las ciencias sociales y del comportamiento en la Ley. Una definición de psicología jurídica [Role of the social sciences and behavior in the Law. A definition of legal psychology]. Psicología Política, 44, 87-107.

Congress of the Republic of Colombia. (2002). Ley 796 de 2002. Por la cual se expide el Código Nacional de Tránsito Terrestre y se dictan otras disposiciones [By which the National Land Transit Code is issued and other provisions]. Retrieved from

Congress of the Republic of Colombia. (2006). Ley 1090 de 2006. Por la cual se reglamenta el ejercicio de la profesión de Psicología, se dicta el Código Deontológico y Bioético y otras disposiciones [By which the exercise of the profession of Psychology is regulated, the Deontological and Bioethical Code is dictated and other dispositions]. Retrieved from /ley_1090_2006.html

Congress of the Republic of Colombia. (2011). Ley 1503 de 2011. Por la cual se promueve la formación de hábitos, comportamientos y conductas seguros en la vía y se dictan otras disposiciones [By which it promotes the formation of habits, behaviors and behaviors safe in the way and other dispositions are dictated]. Retrieved from

Critchfield, T. (2011). Translational contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 34, 3-17. doi: 10.1007/bf03392227

District Secretary of Mobility. (2011). Comportamientos positivos y seguros en la vía - Peatones [Positive and safe behavior on the road - Pedestrians.]. Retrieved from /audio_y_video/Cartilla%20Peatones.pdf

Donadeli, J. & Strapasson, B. (2015). Effects of monitoring and social reprimands on instruction-following in undergraduate student. Psychological Record, 65, 177-188. doi: 10.1007/s40732-014-0099-7

Gómez-Becerra, I., López-Martín, N., & Moreno, E. (2008). Procedimientos para la ruptura o cambio de la (in)sensibilidad a las contingencias y el control verbal [Rupture procedures for change of insensitivity to contingencies and verbal control]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 40(3), 441-459.

Gómez-Becerra, I., Moreno, E., & López-Martín, N. (2006). (In)sensibilidad a unas u otras contingencias en el marco de la conducta gobernada por reglas [Insensitivity to some or other contingencies within the framework of rule-governed behavior]. México: Plaza y Valdez, S.A de CV.

Hayes, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. Nueva York: Plenum Press. doi: 10.1007/b108413

Hayes, S., Gilfford, E., & Hayes, L. (1998). Moral behavior and the development of verbal regulation. The Behavior Analyst, 21, 253-279. doi: 10.1007/bf03391967

Hayes, S., Zettle, R., & Rosenfarb, I. (1989). Rule following. In S. Hayes (Ed.), Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control (pp. 191-220). New York: Plenum.

Herrero–Fernández, D., Macía–Guerrero, P., Silvano–Chaparro, L., Merino, L., & Jenchura, E. (2016). Risky behavior in young adult pedestrians: Personality determinants, correlates with risk perception, and gender differences. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behavior, 36, 14–24. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.11.007

Holland, C., & Hill, R. (2007). The effect of age, gender and driver status on pedestrians’ intentions to cross the road in risky situations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 224–237. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2006.07.003

Holland, C., & Hill, R. (2010). Gender differences in factors predicting unsafe crossing decisions in adult pedestrians across the lifespan: A simulation study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1097–1106. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.023

Hughes, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2016a). Relational Frame Theory: The basic account. In R. Zettle, S. Hayes, D. Barnes- Holmes & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Contextual Behavioral Science (129-179). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hughes, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2016b). Relational Frame Theory: Implications for the study of human language and cognition. In R. Zettle, S. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley Handbook of Contextual Behavioral Science (pp. 179-227). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

International Transport Forum. (2011). Peatones: Seguridad vial, espacio urbano y salud [Pedestrians: Road safety, urban space and health]. Leipzig: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved from /11PedestrianSumES.pdf

Jiménez-Mejías, E., Martínez-Ruiz, V., Amezcua-Prieto, C., Olmedo-Requena, R., Luna del Castillo, J., & Lardelli-Claret, P. (2016). Pedestrian- and driver-related factors associated with the risk of causing collisions involving pedestrians in Spain. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 92, 211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.03.021

Kissi, A., Hughes, S., De Schryver, M., De Houwer, J., & Crombez, G. (2018). Examining the moderating impact of plys and tracks on the insensitivity effect: a preliminary investigation. The Psychological Record, 68, 431-440. doi: 10.1007/s40732-018-0286-z

Kissi, A., Hughes, S., Mertens, G., Barnes-Holmes, D., De Houwer, J., & Crombez, G. (2017). A systematic review of pliance, tracking, and augmenting. Behavior Modification, 41, 683-707. doi: 10.1177/0145445517693811

Kyonka, E., & Subramaniam, S. (2018). Translating behavior analysis: a spectrum rather than a road map. Perspectives on Behavior Science, 41, 591-613. doi: 10.1007/s40614-018-0145-x

LeFrancois, J., Chase, P., & Joyce, J. (1988). The effects of a variety of instructions on human fixed-interval performance. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49, 383-393. doi: 10.1901/jeab.1988.49-383

Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Institute. (2018). Forensis 2017. Datos para la vida [Facts for life]. Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional. Retrieved from

López, A., Muñoz, C., & Ballesteros, B. (2005). Cambio del contexto social-verbal desde la teoría de marcos relacionales en mujeres en riesgo de desarrollar problemas alimentarios [Changing the social-verbal context from the Relational Frame Theory in women at risk of developing eating problems]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 37(2), 359-378.

Luciano, C., Valdivia-Salas, S., Cabello-Luque, F., & Hernández, M. (2009). Developing self-directed rules. In R. Rehfeldt & Y. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), Derived Relational Responding Applications for Learners with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: A Progressive Guide to Change (pp. 335-353). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Mannocci, A., Saulle, R., Villari, P., & La Torre, G. (2019). Male gender, age and low income are risk factors for road traffic injuries among adolescents: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Journal of Public Health, 27, 263-272. doi: 10.1007/s10389-018-0932-6

Michael, J. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149-155. doi: 10.1901/jeab.1982.37-149

Ministry of Heatlh of Colombia. (1993). Resolución 8430 de 1993. Por la cual se establecen las normas científicas, técnicas y administrativas para la investigación en salud [By which establishes the scientific, technical and administrative norms for the investigation in health.]. Retrieved from

Ministry of Transport of Colombia. (2015). Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial 2011-2021 [National Road Safety Plan 2011-2021]. Retrieved from

Mockus, A., Murraín, H., & Villa, M. (Eds.) (2012). Antípodas de la violencia: Desafíos de cultura ciudadana para la crisis de (in)seguridad en América Latina [Antipodes of Violence: Challenges of citizen culture for the crisis of (in) security in Latin America]. New York: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Moyano-Díaz, E. (2002). Theory of planned behavior and pedestrians’ intentions to violate traffic regulations. Transportation Research Part F 5, 169–175. doi: 10.1016/S1369-8478(02)00015-3

Obregón-Biosca, S., Betanzo-Quezada, E., Romero-Navarrete, J., & Ríos-Nuñez, M. (2018). Rating road traffic education. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, 33-45. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.03.033

O’Hora, D., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Stewart, I. (2014). Antecedent and consequential control of derived instruction-following. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 102(1), 66–85. doi: 10.1002/jeab.95

Ortiz, G., Cisneros, M., & Silva, L. (2019). Tipo de entrenamiento y momento de elaboración de descripciones poscontacto contingencial en tareas de igualación de la muestra [Training type and moment of elaboration of post-contact descriptions in a matching-to-sample task]. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 22(1), 216-229. doi: 10.14718/ACP.2019.22.1.10

Peláez, M., & Moreno, R. (1998). A taxonomy of rules and their correspondence to rule-governed behavior. Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta, 24, 197-214. doi: 10.1037/h0100528

Peña-Correal, T. (2016). El destino del Análisis de la Conducta [The fate of Behavior Analysis]. Acta Comportamentalia, 24(2), 153-168.

Perczek, R. (2013). Inventario de las investigaciones en seguridad vial en Colombia [Road safety researchs inventory in Colombia]. Bogotá: Fondo de Prevención Vial.

Pérez, W., Dutra dos Reis, M., & de Souza, D. (2009). Ëfeitos de historia experimental com diferentes instruçôès e do controle por contingencias sobre o seguimento de instruçôès [Effects of the experimental history with different kinds of instructions and the control of contingencies for following instructions]. Acta Comportamentalia, 18, 55-85.

Pérez, T., Martinez, A., & Silva, J. (2009). Establecimiento de reglas prosociales del tipo aumento formativo (augmenting formative) mediante entrenamiento en discriminaciones condicionales [Establishment of prosocial rules of the augmenting-formative type through training in conditional discriminations]. Pensamiento Psicológico, 5, 89-104.

Pérez-Almonacid, R., & Quiroga-Baquero, L. (2010). Lenguaje: Una perspectiva Interconductual [Language: An interbehavioral perspective]. Bogotá-Colombia: Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana.

Quiroga-Baquero, L., Padilla, M., & Valerio-dos Santos, C. (2014). Experimental analysis of the formulation of counterfactual statements in second-order matching-to-sample tasks. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 15, 149-163.

Rendón-Arango, M. & Quiroga-Baquero, L. (2017). Investigación traslacional en el estudio de marcos deícticos: reflexiones a partir de un trabajo experimental [Translational research in the study of deictic frames: reflections from an experimental work]. Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta, 43, 97-127. doi: 10.5514/rmac.v43.i1.61078

Skinner, B.F. (1966). An operant analysis of problem solving. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.) Problem solving: Research, method and theory (pp. 133-171). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Tonneau, F. (2001). Equivalence Relations: A critical analysis. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 2, 1-33. doi: 10.1080/15021149.2001.11434165

Törneke, N., Luciano, C., & Valdivia, S. (2008). Rule-Governed behavior and psychological problems. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8(2), 141-156.

Trigo, E., & Martínez, F. (1994). Diseños y procedimientos de validación en la psicología interconductual: discriminación condicional y estrategias longitudinales [Validation designs and procedures in interbehavioral psychology: conditional discrimination and longitudinal strategies]. Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta, 20, 67-82. doi: 10.5514/rmac.v20.i1.23449

Villamil, C., Peña-Correal, T., & Quiroga-Baquero, L. (2018). Efectos del contenido funcional de la instrucción sobre el desempeño en igualación a la muestra de segundo orden [Effects of the functional content of instructions on second-order matching-to-sample performance]. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 21(1), 44-56.

Vollmer, T. (2011). Three variations of translational research: Comments on Critchfield. The Behavior Analyst, 34(1), 31-35. doi: 10.1007/bf03392231

Wilson, K., & Luciano, C. (2002). Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso: Un Tratamiento conductual orientado a los valores [Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A behavioral therapy oriented to values]. Madrid: Pirámide.

Wilson, D., Hayes, S., Biglan, T., & Embry, D. (2014). Evolving the future: Toward a science of intentional change. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 34, 395-416. doi:10.1017/S0140525X13001593

World Health Organization. (2013). Seguridad Peatonal. Manual de seguridad vial para instancias decisorias y profesionales [Pedestrian safety: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners]. Ginebra: World Health Organization. Retrieved from 9789243505350_spa.pdf

Yagil, D. (2000). Beliefs, motives and situational factors related to pedestrians’ self-reported behavior at signal-controlled crossings. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 3(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1016/S1369-8478(00)00004-8

Zare, H., Niknami, S., Heidarnia, A., & Hossein-Fallah, M. (2019). Traffic safety education for child pedestrians: A randomized controlled trial with active learning approach to develop street-crossing behaviors. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 60, 734-742. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2018.10.021

Zettle, R., & Hayes, S. (2016). Rule–governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In S. Hayes (Ed.), The Act in Context. The Canonical Papers of Steven C. Hayes (pp. 7-38). NY: Academic Press.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).