Ten stages of American Indian genocide

  • Susan Chavez Cameron First Nations Community Health Source
  • Loan T. Phan University of New Hampshire
Keywords: American Indian, Native American, Genocide


To better serve the American Indian population, it is essential for educators, including professionals in the helping fields, to understand how the United States federal government over the past 200 years used six different strategies to address “America’s Indian problem.” Using the Stanton’s Ten Stages of Genocide (2013), the authors explore American Indian holocaust and genocide and their impact on the behavioral health and well-being of Native people in Indian Country. The purpose of this manuscript is to expand and deepen the views of educators in such a way that influences and effects their professional practice with the American Indian populations they serve.

Para servir al pueblo Indio Americano mejor, es esencial que los educadores, incluyendo a los profesionales en los campos de servicio, entiendan que por los últimos doscientos años el gobierno federal de los Estados Unidos ha usado seis estrategias diferentes dirigiéndose al "problema Americano de los Indios." Los autores usan Las Diez Etapas de Genocidio de Staton, o Staton's Ten Stages of Genocide (2013), para explorar el holocausto y el genocidio de Indio-Americanos y el impacto que ambos han tenido en la salud del comportamiento y el bienestar del pueblo Nativo en su tierra. El propósito del manuscrito es el expandir y profundizar el punto de vista de los educadores de modo que incluya y afecte su práctica profesional con la población Indio Americana que sirven. 

Author Biographies

Susan Chavez Cameron, First Nations Community Health Source
Behavioral Health Therapist, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor
Loan T. Phan, University of New Hampshire

Department of Education, Associate Professor


Adams, D. W. (1995). Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Amnesty International. (2009). Maze of injustice: The failure to protect indigenous women from sexual violence in the USA. New York, NY: Amnesty International Publications. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/amr51/059/2007/en/

Anderson, G. C. (2014). Ethnic cleansing and the Indian: The crime that should haunt American. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Bell, J. (2014). Mass incarceration: A destroyer of people of color and their communities. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jamaal-bell/mass-incarceration-a-dest_b_578854.html

Brookings Institute. (1928). [AKA: the Meriam Report]. The Problem of Indian Administration: Report of a Survey made at the request of Honorable Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior, and submitted to him, February 21, 1928. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ERIC_ED087573

Brown, D. (2007). Bury my heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian history of the American West. New York, NY: Holt Paperbacks.

Brown, T. (2006). Did the U.S. Army distribute smallpox blankets to Indians? Fabrication and falsification in Ward Churchill’s genocide rhetoric. Plagiary, 1. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.5240451.0001.009

Burnett, J. (1890). John Burnett’s story of the Trail of Tears. Cherokee Nation. Retrieved from http://www.cherokee.org/About-The-Nation/History/Trail-of-Tears

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, May 3). Suicide among adults 35-64 years – United States 1999-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62, 321-325. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636024

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2008, February 8). Adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence – United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 57, 113-117. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5705a1.htm

Champagne, D. (2009). From full citizenship to self-determination 1930-75. In C. E. Trafzer (Ed.), American Indians American Presidents: A history (pp. 144-183). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Cohen. (2005). Cohen’s handbook of federal Indian law. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Costello, E. J., Erkanki, A., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2010). Association of family income supplements in adolescence with development of psychiatric and substance use disorders in adulthood among an American Indian population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(19), 1954-1960. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2010.621

Deloria, V. (2002). The Indian reorganization act: Congresses and bills. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Desjardins, L., & Lacey-Bordeaux, E. (2012). Problems of liberty and justice on the Plains. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/10/us/embed-america-tribal-justice/

Fear-Segal, J. (2007). White man's club: Schools, race, and the struggle of Indian Acculturation. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Fox, R. A. (1993). Archeology, history and Custer's Last Battle. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Harkins, A. M. (1970). The formal education of Menominee Indian children: Recent education background conditions. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED067177

Harjo, S. S. (2004). American Indian Religious Freedom Act after twenty-five years: An introduction. Wicazo Sa Review, 19, 129-136.

Hoxie, F. E. (2001). The final promise: The campaign to assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Indian Health Service. (2014). Indian health disparities. Retrieved from http://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/factsheets/disparities/

Jackson, H. H. (1993). A century of dishonor: A sketch of the United States government’s dealings with some of the Indian tribes. New York, NY: Indian Head Books. (Original work published 1881).

Johansen, B. E. (2000). Education – The nightmare and the dream: A shared national tragedy, a shared national disgrace. Native Americans, 17, 10-19.

Johnson, L. B. (1968). Special Message to the Congress on the Problems of the American Indian: "The Forgotten American." Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=28709

Johnson-Dodd, K. (2002). 1850: An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, Early California laws and policies related to California Indians. Retrieved from http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/14/02-014.pdf

Kades, E. (2001). History and interpretation of the great case of Johnson v. M’Intosh. William & Mary Law and History, 19, 67-116. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/744212?uid=3739256&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21104274432973

Lemkin, R. (1944). Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress, Chapter IX, (p. 79 – 95). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Lemkin, R. (1948). Genocide a new term and new conception for destruction of nations. In Axis rule in occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress, (pp. 79-95). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Madley, B. L. (2009). American genocide: The California Indian catastrophe, 1846-1873. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Accession No. 3361527).

Nabokov, P. (1991). Native American testimony: A chronicle of Indian-White relations from prophecy to the present 1492-1992. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

National Council of Juvenile & Family Court Judges. (2011). Disproportionality rates for children of color in foster care. Technical Assistance Bulletin. No.209-MU-MU-K001 from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Program, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/Disproportionality%20TAB1_0.pdf

Nixon, R. M. (n.d.). Special Message to the Congress on Indian Affairs. Retrieved on http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=2573

Oliff, H. (2011). Treaties made, treaties broken. Retrieved from http://blog.nrcprograms.org/treaties-made-treaties-broken/

Oyez Project. (2014). Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. Retrieved from www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1902/1902_275

Pember, M.A. (2007). A painful remembrance. Diverse. Retrieved from http://diverseeducation.com/article/10281/

Pevar, S. L. (2012). The rights of Indians and tribes. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Power, S. (2002). A problem from hell: America and the age of genocide. New York, NY: Perseus Books Group.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (1998). Part II Jurisdiction, admissibility and applicable law. Retrieved from http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/99_corr/2.htm

Rutecki, G. W. (2010). Forced sterilization of Native Americans: Late twentieth century physician cooperation with national eugenic policies. The Center for Bioethics & Human Dignity. Retrieved from http://cbhd.org/content/forced-sterilization-native-americans-late-twentieth-century-physician-cooperation-national-

Sands, P. (2013). Lectures great crimes and troubles. Clare Hall Tanner Lecture. Retrieved from www.sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1614636

Sequoyah Research Center. (n.d.). Family stories from the Trail of Tears (taken from the Indian-Pioneer History Collection, Grant Foreman, Ed.). Retrieved from http://www.ualr.edu/sequoyah/uploads/2011/11/Family%20Stories%20from%20the%20Trail%20of%20Tears.htm

Sides, H. (2007). Forward. In Dee Brown’s, Bury my heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian history of the American west. New York, NY: Picador.

Smith, L. (1995, Nov. 21). A child’s place: The case of adopted Native American twins has raised issues of culture, law, and parenting. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/pqcentral/printviewfile

Smits, D. D. (1994). The frontier army and the destruction of the buffalo: 1865-1883. The Western Historical Quarterly, 25, 312-338. Retrieved from http://history.msu.edu/hst321/files/2010/07/smits-on-bison.pdf

Stannard, D. E. (1992). The conquest of the New World: American holocaust. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Stanton, G. H. (2008A). The cost of denial. Retrieved from http://www.genocidewatch.org/aboutus/thecostofdenial.html

Stanton, G. H. (2008B). The eight stages of genocide: 24-hours for Darfar. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B70d2Z9yago

Stanton, G. H. (2013). The ten stages of genocide. Retrieved from http://www.genocidewatch.org/genocide/tenstagesofgenocide.html. Genocide Watch.

Starita, J. (2009) The case of Standing Bear: Establishing personhood under the law. Court Review, 45, 1-11. Retrieved from http://aja.ncsc.dni.us/publications/courtrv/cr45-1-2/CR45-1-2Starita.pdf

Steinberg, A. (2013). Encyclopedia of politics of the American west. In S. L Danver (Ed.), Encyclopedia of politics of the American west (pp. 217 - 218). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Temkin-Greener, S. J., Kunitz, S. J., Broudy, D., and Haffner, M. (1981). Surgical fertility regulation among women on the Navaho Indian reservation, 1972-1978. American Journal of Public Health, 71, 403-407. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1619672/

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice & the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Centers for Disease control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/txtfilesl/mij/183781.txt.

Tribal Court Clearinghouse. (2014). Public Law 83-280. Retrieved from http://www.tribal-institute.org/lists/pl280.htm

Ulrich, R. (2013). American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.

United Nations. (1948). Chapter IV – Human Rights – Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide. Retrieved from http://legal.un.org/avl/ha/cppcg/cppcg.html

United States Census. (2010). American community survey. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/acs/www/

United States Census (2012). Poverty status in the past 12 months by sex by age: American Indian and Alaska Native. http://1usa.gov/1pNq8F

United States Constitution (1787). Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html

United States Department of Health and Human Services – Indian Health Services. (2011). American Indian/Alaska Native behavioral health briefing book. Retrieved from https://www.ihs.gov/Behavioral/documents/AIANBHBriefingBook.pdf

United States Department of Health and Human Services – Office of Minority Health (2010). Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlID=52

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Racial/Ethnicity of public agency children adoption: October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/race2012.pdf

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Results from the 2012 national survey on drug use and health: Mental health findings. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k12MH_FindingsandDetTables/2K12MHF/NSDUHmhfr2012.htm#sec3-1

United States Department of Justice (1999). American Indians and crime. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aic.pdf

United States Senate Hearing. (1974). Problems that American Indian families face in raising their children and how these problems are affected by federal action or inaction. Washington, DC: U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

University of Oklahoma. (n.d.). Indian affairs: Laws and treaties. Indian Vol. II (Treaties). Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler. Washington DC: Government Printing Office (1904). Retrieved from http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/toc.htm

Viola, H. J. (2008). Warriors in uniform: The legacy of American Indian heroism. Washington, DC: National Geographic.

Wilkinson, C. (2005). Blood struggle: The rise of modern Indian nations.’ New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Wolfe, P. (2006). Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native. Journal of Genocide Research, 8(4), 387-409.

Zinn, H. (2005). As long as grass grows or water runs. In H. Zinn, A people’s history of the United States: History is a weapon, (pp. 125-148). New York, NY: Harper Collins.

How to Cite
Cameron, S. C., & Phan, L. T. (2018). Ten stages of American Indian genocide. Revista Interamericana De Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 52(1). https://doi.org/10.30849/rip/ijp.v52i1.876