Psychology, Interamerican
So... Where Is Resilience? A Conceptual Reflection

How to Cite

Kalawski, J. P., & Haz, A. M. (2017). So. Where Is Resilience? A Conceptual Reflection. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 37(2).


After critically reviewing the historical development of the concept of resilience in psychology and psychiatry, we propose not to consider resilience as a psychological variable in itself. Rather, we suggest that all persons who present an unexpected outcome in face of a given adverse situation should be considered resilient, regardless of the causes of that outcome. We further propose a distinction among protective factors, recovery factors, and behavioral control factors. Finally, implications of these ideas for research are discussed.

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