The interplay among locus of control, sub-clinical psychotic symptoms and psychological well-being in whites and ethnic minorities
An external locus of control has largely been associated with worse psychological well-being. In general, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate a more external locus of control compared to non-psychiatric populations. Prior research in schizophrenia also suggests that the relationship between greater psychotic symptoms and decreased psychological well-being is stronger for individuals who endorse a more external locus of control. This relationship has not been tested in a non-clinical population. In an ethnically diverse sample of 420 participants, this study found, in line with hypotheses, that a more external locus of control was negatively associated with psychological well-being. While sub-clinical psychotic symptoms were negatively associated with psychological well-being, locus of control did not moderate the overall relationship between sub-clinical psychosis and psychological well-being as expected. Secondary analyses examined the relationships between sub-clinical psychotic symptoms, locus of control and psychological well-being by ethnicity and suggested that ethnicity moderated the relationship between an external locus of control and decreased well-being. In other words, for minorities there was a relationship between greater external locus of control and decreased well-being, but not for Whites.
Bann, C., Parker, C., Bradwejn, J., Davidson, J., Vitiello, B., & Gadde, K. (2004). Assessing patient beliefs in a clinical trial of hypericum perforatum in major depression. Depression and Anxiety, 20, 114–122.
Bechdolf, A., Klosterkötter, J., Hambrecht, M., Knost, B., Kuntermann, C., Schiller, S., & Pukrop, R. (2003). Determinants of subjective quality of life in post acute patients with schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 253(5), 228- 235.
Bentall, R., & Kaney, S. (2005). Attributional lability in depression and paranoia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 475–488.
Cheng, C., Cheung, S.F., Chio, J.H.M., & Chan, M.P.S. (2013). Cultural meaning of perceived control: a meta-analysis of locus of control and psychological symptoms across 18 cultural regions. Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 152.
De Brander, B., Gerits, P., & Hellemans, J. (1997). Self-reported locus of control is based on feelings of depression as well as on asymmetry in activation of cerebral hemispheres. Psychology Repository, 80, 1227–1232.
Dyal, J.A. (1984). Cross-cultural research with the locus of control construct. Research with the Locus of Control Construct, 3, 209-306.
Eckblad, M., & Chapman, L. J. (1983). Magical ideation as an indicator of schizotypy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 215.
Ekinci, O., Ugurlu, G.K., Albayrak, Y., Arslan, M., & Caykoylu, A. (2012). The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 53(2), 195-200. doi: 101016/jcomppsych201102010
Eklund, M. (2007). Perceived control: How is it related to daily occupation in patients with mental illness living in the community? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(5), 524-542.
Frisch, M.B., Cornwell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P.J. (1991). Clinical Evaluation of the Quality of Life Inventory: A measure of life satisfaction of use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4, 92-101.
Freeman, D. (2007). Suspicious minds: the psychology of persecutory delusions. Clinical Psychology Review 27(4), 425-457.
Fulmer, C.A., Gelfand, M.J., Kruglanski, A.W., Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Pierro, A., & Higgins, E.T. (2010). On “feeling right” in cultural contexts how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being. Psychological Science.
Garety, P.A., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., & Kiupers, E. (2007). Implications for neurobiological research of cognitive models of psychosis: A theoretical paper. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1377-1391.
Garety, P.A., & Freeman, D. (1999). Cognitive approaches to delusions: A critical review of theories and evidence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 113–154.
Harrow, M., Hansford, B.G., & Astrachan-Fletcher, E.B. (2009). Locus of control: Relation to schizophrenia, to recovery, and to depression and psychosis -- A 15-year longitudinal study. [Research Support, NIH, Extramural] Psychiatry Research, 168(3), 186-192 doi: 101016/jpsychres200806002.
Hoffman, H., & Kupper, Z. (2002). Facilitators of psychosocial recovery from schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 293–302.
Kinderman, P., & Bentall, R. P. (2000). Self-discrepancies and causal attributions: Studies of hypothesized relationships. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 255–273.
Kinderman, P., Dunbar, R., & Bentall, R. P. (1998). Theory‐of‐mind deficits and causal attributions. British Journal of Psychology, 89(2), 191-204.
Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. (3rd Ed) New York: Guilford Press.
Lester, D. (1999). Locus of control and suicidality. Perceptual Motor Skills, 89, 1042.
Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. (2nd Ed) Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Marks, L.I. (1998). Deconstructing locus of control: Implications for practitioners. Journal of Counseling and Development 76(3), 251-260.
Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychology Review, 98(2), 224.
Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and Selves A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 5(4), 420-430.
Mason, O., & Claridge, G. (2006). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE): Further description and extended norms. Schizophrenia Research, 82(2), 203-211.
Morrison, A.P. (2001). The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: An integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions.
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 257-276.
Muthén, L.K., Muthén, B.O. (1998-2010). Mplus User’s Guide. Sixth Edition Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Ng, T.W.H., Sorensen, K.L., & Eby, L.T. (2006). Locus of control at work: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27(8), 1057-1087 doi: 101002/job416.
Raine, A., & Banishay, D. (1995). The SPQ-B: A brief screening instrument for schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders 9, 346-355.
Rotter, J.B. (1954). Social learning theory and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychology Monographs 80(1, Whole No 609).
Ryff, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 1069-1081.
Stocks, A., April, K.A., & Lynton, N. (2012). Locus of control and subjective well-being–a cross-cultural study. Problems Perspectives Management, 10(1), 17-25.
Tabak, N.T., & Weisman de Mamani, A.G. (2014). Latent profile analysis of healthy schizotypywithin the extended psychosis phenotype. Psychiatry Research, 210(3), 1008-1013.
Tas, C., Danaci, A.E., Cubukcuoglu, Z., & Brüne, M. (2012). Impact of family involvement on social cognition training in clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia—a randomized pilot study. Psychiatry Research, 195(1), 32-38.
Twenge, J., Zhang, L., & Im, C. (2004). It's beyond my control: A cross-temporal metaanalysis of increasing externality in locus of control, 1960–2002. Personality and Social Psychology Review 8, 308–319.
Veling, W., Selten, J.P., Mackenbach, J.P., & Hoek, H.W. (2007). Symptoms at first contact for psychotic disorder: comparison between native Dutch and ethnic minorities. Schizophrenia Research, 95(1), 30-38.
Wenzel, S.L. (1993). Gender, ethnic group, and homelessness as predictors of locus of control among job training participants. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 495–505.
Weintraub, M.J., & Weisman de Mamani, A.(2015). Effects of sub-clinical psychosis and cognitive insight on psychological well-being: A structural equation model. Psychiatry Research.
Copyright (c) 2016 Marc Joshua Weintraub, Amy Weisman de Mamani, Saneya H Tawfik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).