Gender Identity, Interpersonal Interactions, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Examining Person x Situation Effects

  • Aída Mencía-Ripley Universidad Iberoamericana (UNIBE), Dominican Republic
  • Joseph Schwartz Stony Brook School of Medicine
  • Elizabeth Brondolo St. John´s University

Abstract

Schemas related to gender identity have been hypothesized to influence the salience of events, the degree to which they are perceived as threatening, and the recruitment of coping efforts when faced with a schema relevant stressor. Literature examining the effects of gender identity on psychophysiological responses to stressors has relied on laboratory studies. We examined the association of feminine gender identity and contextual variables on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of New York City Traffic Enforcement Agents (TEA) in real world contexts. Multilevel regression modeling revealed that femininity was associated with elevations in ambulatory diastolic blood pressure when the TEA was engaged in a gender-relevant interpersonal task. These findings show that identity-related schemas may influence engagement and cardiovascular responses to gender salient activities. 

Author Biographies

Aída Mencía-Ripley, Universidad Iberoamericana (UNIBE), Dominican Republic
Dean of Research and UNESCO Chairholder on Inclusive Education for People with Disabilities and Special Education Needs.
Joseph Schwartz, Stony Brook School of Medicine

Professor of Psychiatry

Stony Brook School of Medicine

Elizabeth Brondolo, St. John´s University

Department of Psychology

St. John´s University, New York

References

Aronson, J., Burgess, D., Phelan, S.M., & Juarez, L. (2013). Unhealthy interactions: The role of stereotype threat in health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 50-54.

Barefoot, J.C., Dahlstrom, W.G., & Williams, R.B. (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: a 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 59-64.

Bem, S.L. (1994). Bem Inventory. Mind Garden.

Bem, S.L. (1981a). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354-364. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.88.4.354.

Bem, S.L. (1981b). The BSRI and gender schema theory: A reply to Spence and Helmreich. Psychological Review, 88, 369-371. doi:10.1037/0033/295X.88.4.369.

Ben-Zeev, T., Fein, S., & Inzlicht, M. (2005). Arousal and stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 41, 174-181. doi: 10.1016/j.esp.2003.11.007.

Bowen, K.S., Birmingham, W., Uchino, B.N., Carlisle, M., Smith, T.W., & Light, K.C. (2013). Specific dimensions of perceived support and ambulatory blood pressure: which support

functions appear most beneficial and for whom? International Journal of

Psychophysiology, 88, 317-324. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.03.004.

Brondolo, E., Imarogbe, K., Karlin W., Taravella, J., Mencía-Ripley, A., Schwartz, J., et al. (2009). Hostility, interpersonal interactions, and ambulatory blood pressure. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 110-121. doi: 10.1037/a0014768.

Brondolo, E., Libby, D.J., Denton, E., Thompson, S., Scwartz, J., Sweeney, M., et al. (2008). Racism and ambulatory blood pressure in a community sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 49-56.

Brondolo, E., Rieppi, R., Erickson, S.A., Bagiella, E., Shapiro, P.A., McKinley, P.S., et al. (2004). Hostility, interpersonal interactions, and ambulatory blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 1003-1011.

Brondolo, E., Karlin, W., Alexander, K., Bobrow, A., & Schwartz, J. (1999). Workday communication and ambulatory blood pressure: Implications for the reactivity hypothesis.

Psychophysiology, 36,86-94. doi: 10.1017/S0048577299961565.

Brosschot, J.F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J.F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: a review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of

Psychosomatic Research, 60, 113-124.

Buhrmester, D., Furman, W., Wittenberg, M.T., & Reis, H.T. (1988). Five domains of interpersonal competence in peer relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 991-1008. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.6.991.

Burrow, A.L., & Ong, A.D. (2010). The moderating role of racial identity in exposure and reactivity to daily racial microaggressions. Self and Identity, 9, 383-402. doi: 10.1080/15298860903192496.

Bussey,K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106, 676-713. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.106.4.6676.

Consenzo, K.A., Franchina, J.J., Eisler, R.M., & Krebs, D. (2004). Effects of masculine gender-relevant task instructions on men’s cardiovascular reactivity and mental arithmetic

performance. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5, 103-111.

Cook, W.W., & Medley, D.M. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virtue scales from the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414-418. doi: 10.1037/h0060667.

Davis, M.C., & Matthews, K.A. (1996). Do gender-relevant characteristics determine cardiovascular reactivity? Match versus mismatch of traits and situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 527-535. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.3.527.

Eliezer, D., Major, B., & Mendes, W.B. (2010). The costs of caring: Gender identification increases threat following exposure to sexism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 159-165.

Ewart, C.K., & Kolodner, K.B. (1994). Negative affect, gender, and expressive style predict

elevated ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 596-605. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.3.596.

Grassi, G., Bombelli, M., Seravalle, G., Brambilla, G., Dell´oro, R., & Mancia, G. (2013). Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension. Current Hypertension

Reports, 15, 232-237. doi:10.1007/s11906-013-0349-0.

Heller, D., Watson, D., & Ilies, R. (2004). The role of person versus situation in life satisfaction: A critical examination. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 574-600.

Hermida, R.C., Hernández, J.R., Ayala, D.E., Mojόn, A., Alonso, I., & Smolensky, M. (2001). Circadian rhythm of double (rate-pressure) product in healthy normotensive young subjects. Chronobiology International, 18, 475-489. doi:10.1081/CBI-100103970.

Houston, B.K., & Vavak, C.R. (1991). Cynical hostility: Developmental factor, psychosocial correlates, and health behaviors. Health Psychology, 10, 9-17.

Kamarck, T.W., Shiffman, S.M., Smithline, L., Goodie, J.L., Paty, J.A., Gnys, M., et al. (1998). Effects of task strain, social conflict, and emotional activation on ambulatory cardiovascular activity: Daily life consequences of recurring stress in a multiethnic adult

sample. Health Psychology, 17, 17-29.

Karlin, W.A., Brondolo, E., & Schwartz, J. (2003). Workplace social support and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in New York City Traffic Agents. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 167-176. Doi: 10.1097/01.PSY.0000033122.09203.A3.

Lash, S.J., Gillespie, B.L., Eisler, R.M., & Southard, D.R. (1991). Sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity: Effects of the gender relevance of the stressor. Health Psychology, 10, 392-398. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.10.6.392.

Lundberg, U., de Chateau, P., Winberg, J., & Frankenhaeuser, M. (1981). Catecholamine and cortisol excretion patterns in three year-old children and their parents. Journal of Human Stress, 7, 3-11. doi:10.1080/0097840x.1981.9936826.

Maier, K.J., Waldstein, S.R., & Synowski, S.J. (2003). Relation of cognitive appraisal to cardiovascular reactivity, affect, and task engagement. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 32-41.

Meininger, J.C., Liehr, P., Chan, W., Smith, G., & Mueller, W.H. (2004). Developmental, gender, and ethnic group differences in moods and ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 10-19.

Mor, N., & Inbar, M. (2009). Rejection sensitivity and schema-congruent information processing biases. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 392-98.

Prokos, A., & Padavic, I. (2002). ‘There oughtta be a law against bitches’: Masculinity lessons in

police academy training. Gender, Work, and Organization, 9, 439-59. doi:10.1111/1468-0432.00168.

Shapiro, D., Goldstsein, I.B., & Jamner, L.D. (1996). Effects of cynical hostility, anger out, anxiety, and defensiveness on ambulatory blood pressure in Black and White college students. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 354-364.

Shekelle, R.B., Gale, M., Ostfeld, A.M., & Paul, O. (1983). Hostility, risk of coronary heart disease, and mortality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 109-114.

Smith, T.W., Ruiz, J.M., & Uchino, B.N. (2004). Mental activation of supportive ties, hostility, and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress in young men and women. Health Psychology, 23, 476.

Smith, T.W., Gallo, L.C., Goble, L., Ngu, L.Q., & Stark, K.A. (1998). Agency, communion, and cardiovascular reactivity during marital interaction. Health Psychology, 17, 537-545.

doi:10.1037/0278-6133.17.6.537.

Smith, T.W. (1992). Hostility and health: Current status of a psychosomatic hypothesis. Health Psychology, 11, 139-150.

Steptoe, A., Cropley, M., & Joekes, K. (2000). Task demands and the pressures of everyday life: Associations between cardiovascular reactivity and work blood pressure and heart rate. Health Psychology, 19, 46-54.

Stroud, L.R., Salovey, P., & Epel, E.S. (2002). Sex differences in stress responses: Social rejection versus achievement stress. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 318-327.

Stroud, L.R., Niaura, R.S., & Stoney, C.M. (2001). Sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity to physical appearance and performance challenges. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 240-250.

Thoits, P.A. (2013). Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In C.S. Aneshensel, J.C. Pelan, & A. Bierman (eds.) Handbook of the sociology of mental health. Heidelberg: Springer Dordrecht. p. 357 – 377.

White, W.B., Morganroth, J. (1989). Usefulness of ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure in assessing antihypertensive therapy. American Journal of Cardiology, 63, 94-98.

Whited, M.C., & Larkin, K.T. (2009). Sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity. Influence of the gender role relevance of social tasks. Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 77-84. doi: 10.1027/0269-8803.23.2.77.

Zanstra, Y.J., & Johnston, D.W. (2011). Cardiovascular reactivity in real life settings: Measurement, mechanisms and meaning. Biological Psychology, 86, 98-105.

Published
2016-06-08
How to Cite
Mencía-Ripley, A., Schwartz, J., & Brondolo, E. (2016). Gender Identity, Interpersonal Interactions, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Examining Person x Situation Effects. Revista Interamericana De Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 49(2). https://doi.org/10.30849/rip/ijp.v49i2.27