Psychology, Interamerican
Conceptual and Methodological Aspects of Emotional Labor: An Integrative Review
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emotional labor
conceptual definition
integrative review

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Simões, A. C. A., Gondim, S. M. G., & Puente-Palacios, K. E. (2023). Conceptual and Methodological Aspects of Emotional Labor: An Integrative Review. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 57(1), e1748.


Ever since emotional labor (EL) was first described in 1979, the number of theories and measures to study this phenomenon has grown. The objective of this integrative review was to systematize and critically analyze the state of the art of theoretical production and measures regarding EL between 1979 and July 2022. Seventy-eight works were selected from 222 initially identified. The results showed two main theoretical aspects for its definition and measurement: as a phenomenon that occurs internally within the subject and as the individual's expressed emotional behavior. One of the main conclusions is that the theories and measures reviewed do not simultaneously contemplate the three components initially proposed by the Hochschild model to characterize EL (demands, strategies, and emotional performance). This imposes limits on apprehension of the phenomenon. The implications for the development of the area are discussed.


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Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Célia Araújo Simões, Sonia Maria Guedes Gondim, Katia Elizabeth Puente-Palacios