It was characterized the psychological profile of 16 women before and after bariatric surgery, using Rorschach Test. The evaluations were performed before surgery and reevaluations occurred within three and seven months after the intervention. Data were coded and quantified according Rorschach Test recommendations. The evaluations were compared using Wilconxon Test (p<0.05). The data indicated experiences of psychic maturity before and after surgery. There was a tendency to decrease in intensity of the indicators of anxiety in the postoperative period, and greater ease of use of cognitive resources on such experiences. The Rorschach Test allowed to characterize and control the defensive mechanisms against the anxiety. It is considered that such an assessment may collaborate with the planning of necessary psychological support.