Psychology, Interamerican
Development and validation of the Social Rejection Expectations Scale (SRE)
Abstract Oxid
PDF (Español (España))


expectations of social rejection
interpersonal performance
Argentinean adults expectativas de rechazo social
desempeño interpersonal
adultos argentinos.

How to Cite

Morán, V. E., & Olaz, F. O. (2020). Development and validation of the Social Rejection Expectations Scale (SRE). Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 54(2), e871.


The social performance of individuals is influenced by the expectations that people have about the outcome of their behavior, since these allow us to anticipate the future and plan courses of action. The expectations of social rejection have been defined as thoughts that anticipate the possibility of being rejected in an interpersonal situation. When they are frequent can bring a number of difficulties in the social life of people. The aim of this study was to build the Social Rejection Expectations Scale (SRE) for the adult population. First, 51 preliminary items were submitted to expert judgment (N = 6) to obtain evidence of content validity. Second, using an accidental sampling, an exploratory (N = 320) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 458) was performed. As a result, a final scale was obtained, consisting of 27 items distributed in three factors named as Expectations of rejection in situations with known people, Expectations of rejection in situations of establishment of new relationships and Expectations of rejection in public places and with unknown people. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated, obtaining very good and excellent coefficients for each factor (from .71 to .88). Finally, significant positive correlations were obtained between the scales of the test and different measures of social anxiety. It can be concluded that the SRE is a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of expectations of social rejection in the adult population, being a useful tool in research and diagnosis.
PDF (Español (España))


Alfano, C. A., Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2006). Cognitive Correlates of Social Phobia Among Children and Adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 34(2), 182–194.

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council of Measurement in Education (2014). The standards for educational and psychological testing. AERA.

Ayduk, O., Downey, G., & Kim, M. (2001). Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms in women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7), 868-877.

Baldwin, M. W., & Dandeneau, S. D. (2006). Understanding and Modifying the Relational Schemas Underlying Insecurity. In M.W. Baldwin (Ed.), Interpersonal cognition, (pp. 32-61). Guilford Press.

Baldwin, M.W., & Main, K. J. (2001). Social anxiety and the cued activation of relational knowledge. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(12), 1637-1647.

Boomsma, A.,& Hoogland, J. J. (2001). The robustness of LISREL modeling revisited. En: R. Cudeck, S. Du Toit, D. Sörbom (Eds). Structural equation modeling: present and future. A festschrift in honor of Karl Jöreskog. p. 139-68. Scientific Software International.

Bretherton, I. & Munholland, K.A. (1999). Internal working models in attachment relationships. En J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 89-113). Guilford Press.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Press.

Caballo, V; Irurtia, M.A. & Salazar I. (2011). Abordagem cognitiva na avaliacao e intervencao sobre habilidades socias. En A. Del Prette & Z.A.P. Del Prette (Orgs.). Psicologia das habilidades sociais: Diversidade teórica e suas implicações (2da Ed) (pp. 67-107). Vozes.

Caballo, V. E., Salazar, I. C., Arias, B., Irurtia, M., Calderero, M., & CISO-A Research Team. (2010). Validación del Cuestionario de Ansiedad Social para Adultos’ (CASO-A30) en universitarios españoles: similitudes y diferencias entre carreras universitarias y comunidades autónomas. Behavioral Psychology, 18(1), 5-34.

Carretero- Dios, H., & Pérez, C. (2005). Normas para el desarrollo y revisión de estudios instrumentales. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5 (3), 521-551.

Catell, R. (1966). The Scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavior Research, 1, 245-276.

Caouette, J. D., & Guyer, A. E. (2016). Cognitive distortions mediate depression and affective response to social acceptance and rejection. Journal of affective disorders, 190, 792-799.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.

Collins, K. A., Westra, H. A., Dozois, D. J., & Stewart, S. H. (2005). The validity of the brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Journal of anxiety disorders, 19(3), 345-359.

Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best Practices in Exploratory Factor Analysis: Four Recommendations for Getting the Most From Your Analysis. Assessment, 10 (7), 1-9.

Downey, G., & Feldman, S. I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity for intimate relationships. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70(6), 1327-1343.

Downey, G., Feldman, S., Khuri, J., & Friedman, S. (1994). Maltreatment and child depression. In W. M. Reynolds & H. E Johnson (Eds.), Handbook of depression in childhood and adolescence (pp. 481-508). Plenum.

Driscoll, R. L., Barclay, P., & Fenske, M. J. (2017). To be spurned no more: The affective and behavioral consequences of social and nonsocial rejection. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 24(2), 566-573.

Fiedler, D. & Beach, L, R. (1978). On the decision to be assertive. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(3), 537-54.

Gilbert, P. (2001). Evolution and social anxiety: The role of attraction, social competition, and social hierarchies. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(4), 723-751.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Nishida, T. (2001). Anxiety, uncertainty, and perceived effectiveness of communication across relationships and cultures. International journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(1), 55-71.

Gudykunst, W. B., & Shapiro, R. (1996). Communication in everyday interpersonal and intergroup encounters. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 19-45.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th Edition). Pearson Education.

Heimberg, R. G., Mueller, G. P., Holt, C. S., Hope, D. A., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1993). Assessment of anxiety in social interaction and being observed by others: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Behavior Therapy, 23(1), 53-73.

Horn, J. (1965). A rationales and test for the number of factor in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179-185.

Inglés, C. J., Méndez, F. X., & Hidalgo, M. D. (2000). Cuestionario de evaluación de dificultades interpersonales en la adolescencia. Psicothema, 12, 390-398.

Leary, M. R. (1983). A brief versión of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371-375.

Leary, M. R (1986). The impact of interactional impediments on social anxiety and self- presentation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 122-135.

Leary, M.R., Twenge, J.M. & Quinlivan, E. (2006). Interpersonal Rejection as a Determinant of Anger and Aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(2), 111-132.

Lee, C. S., & Hayes-Skelton, S. A. (2017). Social Cost Bias, Probability Bias, and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Behavioral Action in Social Anxiety. Behavior Modification, 1-21.

Lent, R.W., & Brown, S.D. (2006). On conceptualizing and assessing social cognitive constructs in career research: A measurement guide. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(1), 12-35.

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Sage publications.

MacDonald, G., & Leary, M. R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological bulletin, 131(2), 202.

McClure, M. J., Lydon, J. E., Baccus, J. R., & Baldwin, M. W. (2010). A signal detection analysis of chronic attachment anxiety at speed dating: Being unpopular is only the first part of the problem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(8) 1024–1036.

Mehrabian, A. (1970). The development and validation of measures of affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(2), 417-428.

Mehrabian, A. (1976). Questionnaire measures of affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection. Psychological Reports, 38, 199-209. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1976.38.1.199

Merino Soto, C., & Livia Segovia, J. (2009). Intervalos de confianza asimétricos para el índice la validez de contenido: Un programa Visual Basic para la V de Aiken. Anales de Psicología, 25(1), 169-171.

Morán, V., Olaz, F. Perez, E. R., & Del Prette. Z. A. P. (2018a). Emotional-Evolutional Model of Social Anxiety in University Student. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 18(3), 315-330.

Morán, V. E., Olaz, F. O., Pérez, E. R., & Del Prette, Z. A. P. (2018b). Desarrollo y validación del Test de Ansiedad Social para estudiantes universitarios (TAS-U). Liberabit: Revista Peruana de Psicología, 24(2), 195–212.

Morán, V. E., Olaz, F. O., & Del Prette, Z. A. (2015). Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, E95.doi: 10.1017/sjp.2015.92

Nelson, E. A., Lickel, J. J., Sy, J. T., Dixon, L. J., & Deacon, B. J. (2010). Probability and cost biases in social phobia: nature, specificity, and relationship to treatment outcome. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(3), 213-228.

Olaz, F.O. (2011). Contribucoes da Teoría Social Cognitiva de Bandura para o Treinamento de Habilidades Sociais. En A. Del Prette & Z.A.P. Del Prette (Orgs.). Psicologia das habilidades sociais: Diversidade teórica e suas implicações (2da Ed.) (pp. 109-148). Vozes.

Olaz, F.O. (2012) Escala de Autoeficacia Social para Universitarios (EAS-U) Estudios Psicométricos y Bases Conceptuales. Editorial Académica Española.

Pajares, F., & Olaz, F. (2008). Teoria Social Cognitiva e auto-eficacia: uma visão geral. En A. Bandura, R.G. Azzi & S. Polydoro (Eds), Teoría Social Cognitiva. Conceitos básicos (pp. 97-114). Artmed.

Rapee, R. M. & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756.

Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: a multimotive model. Psychological review, 116(2), 365.

Sokolowski, K., Schmalt, H.-D., Langens, T. A., & Puca, R. M. (2000). Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once- the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 126-145.

Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman‐Toussaint, M. (2000). The treatment of childhood social phobia: The effectiveness of a social skills training‐based, cognitive‐behavioural intervention, with and without parental involvement. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(6), 713-726.

Stephan, W., & Stephan, C. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 15-166.

Tabak, B. A., Meyer, M. L., Dutcher, J. M., Castle, E., Irwin, M. R., Lieberman, M. D., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2016). Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 41(2), 1-34.

Tevez Carranza, F. N., Olaz, F. O., & Moran, V. E. (2018). Expectativas de rechazo social en personas trans y cisgenero. En N. Barqui, G. Genise & D. Tolosa. Manual integrador hacia la despatologizacion de las indentidades trans. Akadia.

Tobia, V., Riva, P., & Caprin, C. (2017). Who are the children most vulnerable to social exclusion? The moderating role of self-esteem, popularity, and nonverbal intelligence on cognitive performance following social exclusion. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 45(4), 789-801.

Vorauer, J. D., & Ratner, R. K. (1996). Who’s going to make the first move? Pluralistic ignorance as an impediment to relationship formation. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 13, 483–506.

Wirth, J. H., Bernstein M. J., Wesselmann, E. D. & LeRoy A. S. (2015). Social cues establish expectations of rejection and affect the response to being rejected. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 1-20.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Array